Print Email Comment share on Facebook Share on twitter
Print this page
Email link to this page
Send comments about this page
Share on facebook
Share on twitter

Commercially used biological control agents
- Arachnida, Acarina
-

 

Amblyseius andersoni  
Synonyms Typhlodromus andersoni
Family Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Aculops lycopersicae, Aculus schlechtendali, Panonychus ulmi, Phytonemus pallidus, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, Tetranychus urticae, T. cinnabarinus
Original distribution Palaearctic and Nearctic
Distribution in EPPO Widespread
Date of first use 2006 (by Syngenta)
EPPO countries where used France, Guernsey, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, UK
Use Indoors / Outdoors

 

Amblyseius barkeri  
Synonyms Amblyseius mckenziei, Neoseiulus barkeri
Family Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Thysanoptera (Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella occidentalis), Tarsonemidae
Original distribution Europe
Distribution in EPPO Widespread
Date of first use 1981
EPPO countries where used Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Slovakia, Switzerland
Use Indoors

 

Amblyseius degenerans  
Synonym Iphiseius degenerans
Family Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Thysanoptera
Original distribution Africa/Mediterranean
Distribution in EPPO Mediterranean
Date of first use 1993
EPPO countries where used Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Jersey, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, UK
Use Indoors

 

Amblyseius swirskii  
Synonym
Typhlodromips swirskii
Family
Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Bemisia tabaci, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Frankliniella occidentalis
Original distribution East of Mediterranean region, naturally occurs in Israel, Italy, Cyprus, Greece and Egypt, found there in various crops like apples, apricot, citrus, vegetables and cotton
Distribution in EPPO Mediterranean
Date of first use 2005 (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Morocco, Netherlands, Poland and Turkey)
EPPO countries where used Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guernsey, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Jersey, Morocco, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Turkey, UK
Use Indoors/outdoors

 

Cheyletus eruditus  
Family Cheyletidae
Main target pests Storage mites, spider (foliage) mites
Original distribution Indigenous
Distribution in EPPO Belgium, Israel, Netherlands
Date of first use 1985
EPPO countries where used Belgium, Czechia, France, Germany, Netherlands
Use Indoors
Additional remarks Cases of allergic reactions to farmers have been reported

 

Euseius gallicus  
Family Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) and thrips (Thysanoptera)
Original distribution Indigenous
Distribution in EPPO Belgum, France, Germany, Netherlands, Tunisia, Turkey
Date of first use 2010: first release for trials in the Netherlands, trial station Bleiswijk
EPPO countries where used Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands (FFW/BB/2013/004), Poland and Ukraine
Use Indoors


* References
Döker, I., Witters, J., Pijnakker, J., Kazak,C., Tixier, M.-S.  and Keiter, S. 2014- Euseius gallicus Kreiter and Tixier (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is present in four more counries in Europe: Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Turkey. Acarologia 54(3): 245-248.
Kreiter, S., Tixier, M.-S., Sahraoui, H., Lebdi-Grissa, K., Ben Chabaan, S., Chatti, A., Chermiti, B., Khoualdia, O., and Ksantini, M. 2010. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Tunisia: Catalogue, biogeography, and key for identification. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 5: 151-178.
Mc Murtry, J.A. and Croft, B.A., 1997Life-styles of Phytoseis mites and their roles in biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 42:291-321.
Pijnakker, J. de Souza, A. and Wäckers, F., 2014.  IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 102.Working Group “Integrated Control in Protected Crops, Temperate Climate”. Proceedings of the meeting at Gent (Belgium), 14 – 18 September, 2014. Editors: Irene Vänninen in collaboration with Joachim Audenaert. ISBN 978-92-9067-283-8 [XVI + 251 pp.]  IOBC Bulletin 191-195.

 

Hypoaspis aculeifer  
Synonyms Geolaelaps aculeifer
Family Laelapidae
Main target pests Sciaridae, Rhizoglyphus echinopus
Original distribution Europe
Distribution in EPPO Widespread
Date of first use 1995
EPPO countries where used Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guernsey, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, UK
Use Indoors

 

Macrocheles robustulus  
Synonyms Holostaspis subbadius, Macrocheles coprophila
Family Macrochelidae
Main target pests Soil dwelling pests like thrips (pupae) and sciarids (larvae)
Original distribution Indigenous
Distribution in EPPO Widespread
Date of first use 2010
EPPO countries where used Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, UK, Ukraine
Use Indoors
Additional remarks The mites are highly specific on small soil-dwelling invertebrates and cannot survive without prey, they do not feed on plants and their habitat is restricted to moist soil and manure/dung. As a result of this there is no evidence of any adverse effects of the mite on the environment.


* References
Afifi, A.M., 1989. Laboratory studies on the biology and feeding habits of three Macrochelid mites (Acari:Gamasida: Macrodhelidae). Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte, 68: 169-174.
Bloszyk, 2005. Nests of the white stork Ciconia ciconia (L.) as a habitat for mesostigmatic mites (Acari, Mesostigmata). Acta Parasitologica 50 (2): 171-175.
Cicolani, 1979. The intrinsic rate of natural increase in dung macrochelid mites, predators of Musca domestica eggs. Boll. Zool. 46; 171-178.
Costa, M., 1966. Notes on macrochelids associated with manure and coprid beetles in Israel I. Macrocheles robustulus (Berlese, 1904), development and biology. Acarologia 8 (4): 532-548.
Karg, W. 1993.  Raubmilben, Acari (Acarina), Milben Parasitiformes (Anactinochaeta) Cohors Gamasina Leach. In: Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, 59. teil: 101-114.
Filipponi, A. & B. Mosna, 1968. Influenza di fattori ecologici e genetici sulla natalità e mortalità di Macrocheles robustulus (Berlese, 1904). Ann. 1st Super. Sanità 4: 551-571.
Grosman, A., G. Messelink & E. de Groot, 2011. Combined use of a mulch layer and the soil-dwelling predatory mite Macrocheles robustulus (Berlese) enhance the biological control of sciarids in potted plants. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 68: 51-54.
Krantz, 1998. Reflections on the biology, morphology and ecology of the Macrochelidae. Exp. and Appl. Acarology 22: 125-137.
Masan, P., 2003. Macrochelid mites of Slovakia (Acari, Mesostigmata, Macrochelidae). Institute of Zoology, Bratislava, Slovak Academy of Sciences: 41, 62-67, 103-104.
Messelink, G.J. & R. van Holstein-Saj, 2008. Improving thrips control by the soil-dwelling mite Macrocheles robustulus (Berlese). IOBC/wprs bulletin 32: 135-138.
Perotti, A., 2001. Prey location and predation rates of predatory mites (Acari: Macrochelidae) on immature stages of pest flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Systematic and applied Acarology 6: 27-33.

 

Metaseiulus occidentalis  
Synonyms Galendromus occidentalis, Typhlodromus occidentalis
Family Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Tetranychidae
Original distribution Nearctic
Distribution in EPPO ?
Date of first use 1991
EPPO countries where used Denmark, France, Greece, Guernsey, Jersey, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK
Use Indoors/outdoors

 

Neoseiulus californicus (non-diapausing strain only*)
Synonyms Amblyseius californicus, Typhlodromus californicus, Amblyseius mungeri, Typhlodromus mungeri, Amblyseius chilensis, Typhlodromus marinus
Family Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Tetranychidae
Original distribution Southern N. America/California, Mediterranean
Distribution in EPPO Israel
Date of first use 1985
EPPO countries where used Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guernsey, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jersey, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia, UK (restricted under license)
Use Indoors/outdoors

* References
Gotoh, T., T. Akizawa, M. Watanabe, A. Tsuchiya & S. Shimazaki, 2005. Cold hardiness of Neoseiulus californicus and N. womersleyi. J. Acarol. Soc. Jpn. 14(2): 93-103.
Hart, A.J., J.S. Bale, A.G. Tullet, M.R. Worland and K.F.A. Walters, 2002. Effects of temperature on the establishment potential of the predatory mite Amblyseius californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in the UK. J. Insect Physiology 48: 593-599.
Houten, M. van, P.J.C. van Rijn, L.K. Tanigoshi, P. van Stratum & J. Bruin, 1995. Preselection of predatory mites to improve year-round biological control of western flower thrips in greenhouse crops. Ent. Exp. et Appl. 74: 225-234.
Morewood, W.D., 1993. Diapause and cold hardiness of phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Eur.J.Entomol.90: 3-10.

 

Neoseiulus cucumeris  
Synonym Amblyseius cucumeris
Family Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Thysanoptera (T. tabaci, F. occidentalis)
Original distribution Cosmopolitan
Distribution in EPPO Widespread (not present in Sweden, Finland, Norway)
Date of first use 1985
EPPO countries where used Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guernsey, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jersey, Jordan, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, UK
Use Indoors/outdoors

 

Phytoseiulus persimilis  
Synonyms Phytoseiulus riegeli, Phytoseiulus tardi
Family Phytoseiidae
Main target pests Tetranychidae (Tetranychus urticae)
Original distribution Mediterranean
Distribution in EPPO Southern Europe
Date of first use 1968
EPPO countries where used Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guernsey, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jersey, Jordan, Lithuania, Malta, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, UK
Use Indoors/outdoors

 

Stratiolaelaps scimitus  
Synonyms Hypoaspis scimitus
Taxonomic remark The species has been previously used under the erroneous name Stratiolaelaps miles (=Hypoaspis miles = Geolaelaps miles)*
Family Laelapidae
Main target pests Sciaridae, Rhizoglyphus echinopus
Original distribution Palaearctic
Distribution in EPPO Widespread
Date of first use 1994
EPPO countries where used Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jersey, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
Use Indoors


* References:
Cabrera AR, Cloyd RA, Zaborski ER (2005) Development and reproduction of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) with fungus gnat larvae (Diptera: Sciaridae), potworms (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Acari: Acaridae) as the sole food source. Experimental and Applied Acarology 36(1/2), 71-81.
Knapp M, Klapwijk J, October 2012 Information supporting the name change of commercially available Hypoaspis miles to Stratiolaelaps scimitus. KOPPERT Biological Systems.
Walter DE, Campbell NJH (2003) Exotic vs endemic biocontrol agents: would the real Stratiolaelaps miles (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae), please stand up? Biological Control 26, 253-269.
Womersley H (1956) On some new Acarina-Mesostigmata from Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea. Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology) 42, 505-599.

 

Typhlodromus pyri  
Family Phytoseiidae

Main target pests
Panonychus ulmi, Tetranychus urticae, Eriophyes vitis, Epitrimerus vitis
Original distribution Europe/Nearctic
Distribution in EPPO Widespread
Date of first use 1985
EPPO countries where used Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia
Use Outdoors

Back to list