This standard gives a list of biological agents widely used in the EPPO region, to facilitate decisions on the import and release of biological control agents within EPPO countries.
|Specific approval and amendment
First approved in September 2001. Revisions of the list are not subject to approval by EPPO Council, but are decided by the Panel on Safe Use of Biological Control. Last revision was made in 2012-11.
EPPO Standards PM 6/1 and PM 6/2 provide guidelines to national authorities in the EPPO region on the introduction and release of non-indigenous biological control agents, so as to identify and avoid hazards for agricultural and natural ecosystems. These standards are intended to be used in relation to future introductions but not retrospectively for past introductions. There is extensive previous knowledge and experience of the use of introduced biological control agents in a number of countries in the EPPO region, sufﬁcient to indicate their safe use in plant protection. The addition of a species to the list is made on the basis of current knowledge. The list is subject to regular review and may change based on new information whereby a listed species may no longer fulfil the criteria to remain on the list and is removed.
List of biological control agents
This list accordingly specifies indigenous, introduced and established biological control agents* which are recognized by the EPPO Panel on Safe Use of Biological Control to have been widely used in several EPPO countries. Other EPPO countries may therefore presume with some conﬁdence that in the absence of any reported negative effects on non-target organisms, these agents can be introduced and used safely. They may, according to their judgement, dispense with, or simplify, the notiﬁcation procedures proposed in EPPO Standards PM 6/1 and PM 6/2.
The agents are listed on the basis of an expert judgement of available information which are categorized as follows:
|(1)||biological control agent which is (or has been) commercially available, and is either indigenous and widespread in the EPPO region, or established and widespread in the EPPO region, or has been used for at least 5 years in at least ﬁve EPPO countries (exceptionally less, if crops are grown in few countries).|
|(2)||successful classical biological control agent|
Microorganisms used for biological control are not considered (since these are covered by EU Regulation 1107/2009 or equivalent regulations in most EPPO countries). The absence of a given organism from the list does not mean that it is considered unsafe, but only that it has not yet been studied, that there are uncertainties that justify further study, or else that its use is too recent for it to be included. The list (drawn up in English) is updated annually. It is divided into three parts: commercially used biological control agents (Appendix I), successfully introduced classical biological control agents (Appendix II) and agents formerly listed on Appendix 1 and/or 2 but removed (Appendix 3).
* In relation to ISPM No. 3, this means biological control agents which either originate in the EPPO region (i.e. indigenous), or have been released into an ecosystem in the EPPO region where they did not exist previously (i.e. introduced) or are perpetuating themselves in the EPPO region after introduction for the foreseeable future (i.e. established).
APPENDIX I - Commercially used biological control agents
(click on names to obtain details)
Further details are given for each agent on its name, common synonyms, taxonomic classiﬁcation, the pests against which it is mostly targeted, its origin, the date of ﬁrst use as a commercial agent. Countries where it is or has been used in the EPPO region are listed, on the basis of information provided by the industry and by some EPPO countries. This information was not available from all EPPO countries and may therefore be incomplete. Each agent has been used commercially at some time in the countries listed, but in some cases may no longer be commercially available or used there. Information is also given, when available, on natural distribution of the agent in the EPPO region, whether it is used in the ﬁeld or under protected conditions. Additional remarks are appended when needed.
Further details are given for each agent on its name, common synonyms, taxonomic classiﬁcation, the pest(s) against which it has been used, date of ﬁrst use, whether the agent was introduced as single or multiple introductions, and the origin of the collected material. Countries where the agent has been introduced for classical biological control in the EPPO region are listed. The presence of an agent on the list means that it has been used successfully in at least one of the countries mentioned. The result of the introduction is given, when available, as follows: [C] complete, [S] substantial, [P] partial, [E] established but not contributing to control or status unknown, [F] failed to become established; [N] no information on the outcome; [T] established but believed to have died out. Asterisks (*) indicate cases where more than one organism contributed to the result. Information on countries and result of introduction are given on the basis of information provided by the BIOCAT database of CABI (data from 1997 and 2000) and by some EPPO countries. Countries are, as far as possible, listed in the chronological order of introduction of the agent for classical biological control. The list of countries indicates to a certain degree the area in which each organism is present and established in the EPPO region, to the extent that each successful introduction can be presumed to have involved establishment. However, organisms may already be indigenous in some parts of the EPPO region, or have spread from countries where they were introduced, or indeed have disappeared from countries where they were once established, so the true distribution is uncertain in many cases. In some cases, a general statement can be made about present distribution in the EPPO region and this has been added in italics at the end of the list of countries.
Species which appear on this list were listed in Appendix I or II but have been removed. These species are not necessarily unsafe. Rather, they no longer fulfil all of the criteria to remain on the list. The reasons for removal from Appendix I or II are provided. Evidence for removal relating to non-target or other adverse effects in one or more countries in the EPPO region are referenced.
Previously recommended commercially used biological control agents
Previously recommended successfully introduced classical biological control agents