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Appendix III

List of biological control agents formerly recommended by EPPO

 

Formerly recommended as commercially used biological control agents

 
Insecta: Hymenoptera  
Cales noacki  
Family Aphelinidae
Main target pest Aleurothrixus floccosus
Date of first use 1970
EPPO countries where introduced Spain [S], France [C], Italy [S], Morocco [C], Portugal [E], Tunisia [C], Malta, Greece (Mediterranean distribution)
Multiple/single introductions Single, multiple
Origin of collected material Chile
Date of removal from the list

2009-03-25/26, Joint EPPO/IOBC Meeting on Biological Control Agents, Engelberg (CH)

Summary of reasons

Commercial releases may lead to establishment in non-target habitats in certain areas. Outdoor releases have shown a wide host range that extends beyond the order Hemiptera and in some areas out competes indigenous natural enemies.

   
Lysiphlebus testaceipes  
Family Braconidae
Main target pest Aphididae (Aphis gossypii)
Original distribution Nearctic, USA
Distribution in EPPO Mediterranean countries (and possibly others)
Date of first use 1990
EPPO countries where used Denmark, Germany (DE), Italy, Spain
Use Indoors
Date of removal from the list 2008-03-26/28, Joint EPPO/IOBC Meeting on Biological Control Agents Wageningen (NL)
Summary of reasons

The species has a wide host range and shown non-target effects. In some areas it has spread into non-target habitats, where it has attacked non-target host species and replaced native primary parasitoid species (see references).

Lumbierres B., Starý P., Pons X., 2007. Seasonal parasitism of cereal aphids in a Mediterranean arable crop system. Journal of Pest Science, 80: 125-130.
Pons X., Lumbierres B., Starý P., 2004. Expansión de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hym., Braconidae, Aphidiinae) en el Noreste de la Península Ibérica. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal. Plagas, 30: 547-552.
Starý P., Lumbierres B., Pons, X., 2004. Opportunistic changes in the host range of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cr.), an exotic aphid parasitoid expanding in the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Pest Science, 77: 139-144.

  

 

Formerly recommended as successfully introduced classical biological control agents
 

Insecta: Coleoptera  
Harmonia axyridis  
Family Coccinellidae
Main target pest Toxoptera aurantii
Date of first use 1964
EPPO countries where introduced Portugal (Azores) [S*], Greece, former USSR [N], Ukraine, Tunisia, Italy
Multiple/single introductions Single
Origin of collected material East Asia
Date of removal from the list 2009-03-25/26, Joint EPPO/IOBC Meeting on Biological Control Agents, Engelberg (CH)
Summary of reasons

The species has a wide host range across many taxonomic groups with a strong capacity for natural spread. The species has become established in large areas of the EPPO region and is known to attack non-target prey, including some beneficial species. Based on releases elsewhere, replacement of native coccinellid species in the EPPO region could be expected.

   
Insecta: Hymenoptera  
Cales noacki  
Family Aphelinidae
Main target pest Aleurothrixus floccosus
Date of first use 1970
EPPO countries where introduced Spain [S], France [C], Italy [S], Morocco [C], Portugal [E], Tunisia [C], Malta, Greece (Mediterranean distribution)
Multiple/single introductions Single, multiple
Origin of collected material Chile
Date of removal from the list

2009-03-25/26, Joint EPPO/IOBC Meeting on Biological Control Agents, Engelberg (CH)

Summary of reasons

Commercial releases may lead to establishment in non-target habitats in certain areas. Outdoor releases have shown a wide host range that extends beyond the order Hemiptera and in some areas out competes indigenous natural enemies.

   
Lysiphlebus testaceipes  
Family Braconidae
Target pest Aphis citricola
Date of first use 1973
EPPO countries where introduced former Czechoslovakia, France (Corse) [P], Morocco [N] (Mediterranean countries and possibly others)
Multiple/single introductions Single, multiple
Origin of collected material USA
Target pest Toxoptera aurantii
Date of first use 1973
EPPO countries where introduced France [S, P], Spain [P], Italy [E], Morocco [N] (Mediterranean countries and possibly others)
Multiple/single introductions Single, multiple
Origin of collected material USA
Date of removal from the list 2008-03-26/28, Joint EPPO/IOBC Meeting on Biological Control Agents Wageningen (NL)
Summary of reasons

The species has a wide host range and shown non-target effects. In some areas it has spread into non-target habitats, where it has attacked non-target host species and replaced native primary parasitoid species (see references).

Lumbierres B., Starý P., Pons X., 2007. Seasonal parasitism of cereal aphids in a Mediterranean arable crop system. Journal of Pest Science, 80: 125-130.
Pons X., Lumbierres B., Starý P., 2004. Expansión de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hym., Braconidae, Aphidiinae) en el Noreste de la Península Ibérica. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal. Plagas, 30: 547-552.
Starý P., Lumbierres B., Pons, X., 2004. Opportunistic changes in the host range of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cr.), an exotic aphid parasitoid expanding in the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Pest Science, 77: 139-144.

   

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Result of introduction when available: [C] complete, [S] substantial, [P] partial, [E] established but not contributing to control or status unknown, [F] failed to become established; [N] no information on the outcome; [T] established but believed to have died out. Asterisks (*) indicate cases where more than one organism contributed to the result.


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